自動駕駛與無人駕駛,傻傻分不清楚

作者 | 發布日期 2015 年 12 月 20 日 12:00 | 分類 Google , 汽車科技 , 自駕車 follow us in feedly

稍早,才看到美國彭博社(Bloomberg)的報導傳出 Google 有意把無人駕駛車部門,獨立出來成為 Alphabet 集團的一間子公司。甚至將推出和叫車軟體 Uber 一樣的業務:共乘(但現在 Uber 好像不是共乘的概念)。



卻在另一個報導看到:Google 的無人駕駛車是否能上路,還是未知數。因為加州車輛管理局(California Department of Motor Vehicles,以下簡稱 DMV)說無人駕駛車內要有駕駛(這是鬼故事嗎?)

原來,加州車輛管理局於 16 日發布一項草案意見徵詢的公告。這項草案為《自動駕駛車的布署細則(Draft autonomous vehicle deployment regulations)》,目前正開放徵詢大眾有關自動駕駛車未來將於加州上路的意見。

加州車輛管理局的局長 Jean Shiomoto 提到:「這個細則最大的目標,是要確保自動駕駛車的安全問題,以及保障同樣是用路人的用路安全。」的確,自動駕駛車的安全一直是被詬病的地方,例如當有車禍發生,責任究竟在誰?而 Google 也致力於解決此類問題,並替相關技術申請了專利(請參閱:Google申請車輛溝通專利,欲改善無人駕駛車安全問題)。

細究 DMV 所公告的《自動駕駛車的布署細則》草案,提到以下四大方向:

  • 製造商認證 / 第三方檢驗

製造商將須對自動駕駛車的性能及安全要求做出證明。另外,更將有第三方檢測單位對其進行各項數據的檢測,藉以做出客觀且公正的認證。

  • 車輛內需有執照的駕駛

車輛內需配置有一名持有執照的操作者,且能在緊急情況時做出相關處置措施。就無人駕駛車(Driverless vehicles)的部份,將先被本草案排除在外。未來,局方將對其做出專屬規範。

  • 三年的布署許可

製造商將被同意 3 年的布署許可,且將要求它們定期提交車輛性能安全的報告。這項臨時許可措施,是為了未來加州全面允許自動駕駛車上路的前置規範。在整個許可期間所蒐集的實際數據,將被做為未來訂定正式規範的參考資料。

  • 隱私與網路安全要求

如果製造商有蒐集相關駕駛數據,那麼將被強制要求提供。如若收集其他額外數據,那麼需經過事先批准。自動駕駛車更需配置有自我診斷的功能,藉以防範網路攻擊或未經許可的入侵,更甚者,需主動發出警示給駕駛。

從上述第二點來看,或許我們都將自動駕駛和無人駕駛混為一談了,誰說配備自動駕駛的車輛內一定沒有駕駛(人)呢?而加州車輛管理局公告的這項細則,目前來看,顯然是針對車內還是有人存在駕駛座位上的自動駕駛車!(人家有說,真正的無人駕駛車將另行規範)。

或許,在討論科技廠的無人駕駛車、自動駕駛車,是不是將被哪一項規範限制之前。我們要先好好定義一下 Autonomous Vehicles 和 Driverless Vehicles 的差別到底是什麼?

你問我答案是什麼,我只想說我也被搞混了!

 

以下為 DMV 的公告原文

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

December 16, 2015

DMV Releases Draft Requirements for Public Deployment of Autonomous Vehicles State Seeks Public Comment on Draft Document

Sacramento—The California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) has released draft autonomous vehicle deployment regulations for public comment. This is the next step toward allowing the public to operate self-driving cars on California roadways in the future.

“The primary focus of the deployment regulations is the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of the public who will share the road with these vehicles,” said DMV Director Jean Shiomoto. “We want to get public input on these draft regulations before we initiate the formal regulatory rule making process.”

The draft regulations are intended to promote the continued development of autonomous vehicle technology in California, while transitioning manufacturers from testing to deployment of self-driving cars. Upcoming public workshops are intended to gather input from industry, consumer and public interest groups, academics, as well as the public, to help improve the quality of the regulations that will eventually be adopted for the operation of self-driving vehicles.

Senate Bill 1298 (Chapter 570; Statutes of 2012) required the DMV to adopt regulations governing both the testing and the use of autonomous vehicles on public roadways. In September 2014, DMV announced the regulations for manufacturers to test the vehicles. Today’s draft regulations address the future use of autonomous vehicles by the public.

The draft regulations are designed to address complex questions related to vehicle safety, certification, operator responsibilities, licensing and registration, privacy, and cyber-security. Key aspects of the draft regulations include:

  1. Manufacturer Certification/Third Party Testing:

Manufacturers will certify to their compliance with specific autonomous vehicle safety and performance requirements.  In addition, a third-party testing organization will be required to conduct a vehicle demonstration test to provide an independent performance verification of the vehicle.

  1. Licensed Driver Required in Vehicle:

A licensed operator will be required to be present inside the vehicle and be capable of taking control in the event of a technology failure or other emergency.  Driverless vehicles are initially excluded from deployment.  The department will address the unique safety, performance, and equipment requirements associated with fully autonomous vehicles in subsequent regulatory packages.

  1. Three-Year Deployment Permit:

Manufacturers will be approved for a three-year deployment permit, which will require them to regularly report on the performance, safety, and usage of autonomous vehicles.  This provisional permit is a critical first step towards the full deployment of autonomous vehicles in California.   Data collected throughout the permit term will provide an opportunity to evaluate the safety and real-world performance of autonomous vehicles and inform subsequent regulatory actions by the department.

  1. Privacy and Cyber-Security Requirements:

Manufacturers must disclose to the operator if information is collected, other than the information needed to safely operate the vehicle. Manufacturers will be required to obtain approval to collect this additional information. Autonomous vehicles will be equipped with self-diagnostic capabilities that detect and respond to cyber-attacks or other unauthorized intrusions, alert the operator, and allow for an operator override.

(本文由 智由博集 授權轉載;首圖來源:Flickr/Automobile Italia CC BY 2.0)

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